The Other Side of The Coin: Examining Mobile Games as a Leisure Constraints

Arif Yüce, Ümitcan Büyükakgül, Hakan Katırcı, Sevda Gökce Yüce

Resumo


The concept of recreation with its dynamic structure and the elements of recreational needs were heavily influenced by communication technology especially after the 2000s (Torkildsen, 2005; Torkildsen, 2012; Spracklen, 2015; Sintas, de Francisco, & Álvarez, 2015; Choi & Dattilo, 2017; Valtchanov & Parry, 2017). The game, one of the oldest known leisure activities (Spracklen, 2011), has been moved from offline to online and further into computers and mobile devices in the 21st century (Chen & Leung, 2016). The preference of mobile games, which have become one of the most popular entertainment tools due to the growing popularity of mobile devices and applications, has made the concept of leisure more digital than ever (Spracklen, 2015; Redhead, 2016; Pink, Hjorth, Horst, & Nettheim, 2017). There are great similarities and common points between the motivations of individuals to participate in leisure activities and the motivation to play mobile games. From this point forth; mobile games, which can be regarded as a recreational activity, can also be considered as leisure constraints from the point of leisure evaluation view (Crawford, Jackson, & Godbey, 1991; Tsai & Coleman, 1999). The aim of this study is to show the possibility of evaluating mobile games, having a very important place in the digital world and game market, as a leisure constraint in the with the help of literature review.

 


Palavras-chave


Leisure constraints; Game; Mobile Game

Referências


Abbott-Chapman, J., & Robertson, M. (2015). Youth leisure, places, spaces and identity. In S. Gammon, & S. Elkington, Landscapes of leisure (pp. 123-134). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Beard, J. G., & Ragheb, M. G. (1980). Measuring Leisure Satisfaction. . 12(1): 20-33. Journal of Leisure Research, 12(1), 20-33.

Beranuy, M., Oberst, U., Carbonell, X., & Chamarro, A. (2009). Problematic Internet and mobile phone use and clinical symptoms in college students: The role of emotional intelligence. , 25(5), 1182-1187. Computers in Human Behavior, 1182-1187.

Beyens, I. F. (2016). “I don’t want to miss a thing”: Adolescents’ fear of missing out and its relationship to adolescents’ social needs, Facebook use, and Facebook related stress. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 1-8.

Bose, I., & Yang, X. (2011). Enter the Dragon: Khillwar’s Foray into the Mobile Gaming Market of China. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 29, 551-564.

Carr, N. (2017). Re-thinking the Relation between Leisure and Freedom. Annals of Leisure Research,, 20(2), 137-151.

Carroll, B., & Alexandris, K. (1997). Perception of Constraints and Strength of Motivation: Their Relationship to Recreational Sport Participation in Greece. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(3), 279-299.

Chen, C., & Leung, L. (2016). Are You Addicted to Candy Crush Saga? An Exploratory Study Linking Psychological Factors to Mobile Social Game Addiction. Telematics and Informatics, 33(4), 1155-1166.

Chess, S. (2018). A time for play: Interstitial time, Invest/Express games, and feminine leisure style. New Media & Society, 20(1), 105-121.

Cheung, C., Lee, M., & Jin, X. (2011). Customer Engagement in an Online Social Platform: A Conceptual Model and Scale Development. Thirty Second International Conference on Information Systems, (s. 1-8). Shangai.

Chick, G., Hsu , Y. C., Yeh , C. K., & Hsieh, C. M. (2015). Leisure Constraints, Leisure Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, and Self-rated Health in Six Cities in Taiwan. Leisure Sciences, 37(3), 232-251.

Choi , Y., & Dattilo, J. (2017). Connections Between Media Technology and Leisure: Insights from Aristotle and Heidegger. Annals of Leisure Research, 20(2), 152-168.

Chubb, M., & Chubb, H. R. (1981). One-third of Our Time: an Introduction to Recreation Behavior and Resource. New York: Wiley. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Cooper, H., Hedges , L. V., & Valentine, J. C. (2009). The Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta-analysis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. C. (1987). Reconceptualizing Barriers to Family Leisure. Leisure Sciences, 9(2), 119-127.

Crawford, D. W., Jackson, E. L., & Godbey, G. C. (1991). A Hierarchical Model of Leisure Constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309-320.

Cushman, ,. G., Veal, A. J., & Zuzanek, J. (2005). Leisure participation and timeuse surveys: an overview. In ,. G. Cushman, A. J. Veal, & J. Zuzanek, Free Time and Leisure Participation: International Perspectives (pp. 1-16). Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

Dockterman, E. (2013, 11 15). Candy Crush Saga: The Science Behind Our Addiction. Retrieved August 10, 2017, from TIME: http://business.time.com/2013/11/15/candy-crush-saga-the-science-behind-our-addiction/

Eklund, L. (2016). Who are the casual gamers? In T. Leaver, & M. Wilson, Social, Casual, and Mobile Games: The Changing Gaming Landscape (pp. 15-30). New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Engl, S., & Nacke, L. E. (2013). Contextual Influences on Mobile Player Experience – a Game User Experience Model. Entertainment Computing, 4(1), 83-91.

Fields, T. (2014). Mobile ve social game design: Monetization methods and mechanics. New York: A K Peters/CRC Press.

Franken, D. A., & Raaij, W. V. (1981). Satisfaction with Leisure Time Activities. Journal of Leisure Reaserch, 13(4), 337-352.

Ha, I., Yoon, Y., & Choi, M. (2007). Determinants of Adoption of Mobile Games under Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Environment. Information ve Management, 44(3), 276-286.

Henderson, K. A., & Shaw, S. M. (2006). Leisure and gender: Challenges and opportunities for feminist research. C. Rojek, S. Shaw, & A. Veal içinde, A handbook of leisure studies (s. 216-230). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hetz, P. R., Dawson, C. L., & Cullen, T. A. (2015). Social media use and fear of missing out (FOMO) while studying abroad. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 47(4), 259-272.

Hochschild, A., & Machung, A. (2012). The second shift: Working families and the revolution at home. London: Penguin.

Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (2009). Flow Online: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 1, 23-24.

Huizinga, J. (2014). Homo Ludens Ils 86 (Vol. 3). Oxon: Routledge.

Jackson, E. L. (1988). Leisure Constraints: a Survey of Past Research. Leisure Science, 10(3), 203-215.

Jackson, E. L., Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1993). Negotiation of Leisure Constraints. Leisure Sciences, 15(1), 1-11.

Jeong, E. J., & Kim, D. J. (2009). Definitions, key characteristics, and generations of mobile games. In D. Taniar (Ed.), Mobile computing: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 289-295). Hershey: IGI Global.

Kang, S. J., Ha, J. P., & Hambrick, M. E. (2015). A Mixed-method Approach to Exploring the Motives of Sport-related Mobile Applications among College Students. Journal of Sport Management, 29(3), 272-290.

Kim, H. M. (2013). Mobile Media Technology and Popular Mobile Games in Contemporary Society. International Journal of Mobile Marketing, 8(2), 42-54.

Koivisto, E. M. (2007). Mobile Games 2010. Nokia Research Center , 1-21.

Kozlenkova, I. V., Palmatier, R. W., Fang, E., & Xiao, B. (2017). Online Relationship Formation. Journal of Marketing, 81(3), 21-40.

Kulabaş, Ş. (2013, 12 30). Candy Crush'a Neden Para Ödüyoruz? Retrieved August 8, 2017, from Harvard Business Review Türkiye: https://hbrturkiye.com/blog/candy-crush-a-neden-para-oduyoruz

Layland, E. K., Stone, G. A., Mueller, J. T., & Hodge, C. J. (2015). Injustice in Mobile Leisure: A Conceptual Exploration of Pokémon Go. Leisure Sciences, 40(4), 288-306.

Lee, S., & Quan, C. (2013). Factors Affecting Chinese Ubiquitous Game Service Usage Intention. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 11(2), 194-212.

Lehtonen, M. J., & Harviainen, J. T. (2016). Mobile Games and Player Communities: Designing for and with Clans. Design Management Review, 27(3), 20-26.

Lune, H., & Berg, B. L. (2017). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (9 ed.). Edinburgh: Pearson.

Machi, L. A., & McEvoy, B. T. (2016). The literature review: Six steps to success (3 ed.). California: Corwin Press.

Mannell, R. C. (2013). Leisure in the laboratory and other strange notions: psychological research on the subjective nature of leisure. In S. Elkington, & J. Gammon (Eds.), Contemporary Perspectives in Leisure (pp. 25-39). Routledge. (pp. 25-39). New York: Routledge.

Mannell, R., & Kleiber, D. A. (1997). A Social Psychology of Leisure. Alberta: Venture Publishing.

Manovich, L. (2001). The Language of New Media. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. . Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Meredith, J. (1993). Theory building through conceptual methods. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 13(5), 3-11.

Merikivi, J., Tuunainen , V., & Nguyen, D. (2017). What Makes Continued Mobile Gaming Enjoyable? Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 411-421.

Mintel. (2015, August 21). Gamers gone mobile: Half of Americans play video games on mobile devices. Retrieved July 2, 2018, from Mintel: http://www.mintel.com/press-centre/technology-press-centre/gamers-gone-mobile-half-of-americans-play-video-games-on-mobile-devices

Morahan-Martin, J., & Schumacher, P. (2003). Loneliness and Social Uses of the Internet. Computers in Human Behavior. 19(6), 659-671.

Newzoo. (2017). Global Games Market Report 2017. Amsterdam; San Francisco: Newzoo. Retrieved from https://newzoo.com/insights/articles/the-global-games-market-will-reach-108-9-billion-in-2017-with-mobile-taking-42

Nielsen. (2011). The Mobile Media Report: State of The Media Q3 2011. Nielsen. Retrieved from http://cn.nielsen.com/documents/Nielsen-Social-Media-Report_FINAL_090911pdf

Nysveen, H., Per Pedersen , E., & Thorbjørnsen, H. (2005). Intentions to Use Mobile Services: Antecedents and Cross-Service Comparisons. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(3), 330-346.

Oftedal, A., Kang, H. K., & Schneider, I. (2015). Perceptions and responses to conflict: Comparing men and women in recreational settings. Leisure Sciences, 37(1), 39-67.

Parker, S. (1979). The Sociology of Leisure. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.

Pereira, A. P., & Long, J. (2015). The Social Dynamics of Space Constructions and Leisure Lifestyles. In Landscapes of Leisure (pp. 41-54). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Pieper, J. (1998). Leisure, the Basis of Culture. (G. Malsbary, Çev.) Indiana, South Bend.

Pink, S., Hjorth, L., Horst, H., & Nettheim, J. (2017). Digital Work and Play: Mobile Technologies and New Ways of Feeling at Home. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 21(1), 26-38.

Polo, D. R., Mendo, L. S., León Del Barco, B. B., & Felipe Castaño, E. (2017). Mobile Abuse in University Students and profiles of victimization and aggression. Adicciones, 29(4), 245-255.

Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1841-1848.

Raymore, L. A., Godbey, G. C., & Crawford, D. W. (1994). Self-esteem, gender, and socioeconomic status: Their relation to perceptions of constraint on leisure among adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 26(2), 99-118.

Redhead, S. (2016). Afterword: A New Digital Leisure Studies for Theoretical Times. Leisure Studies, 35(6), 827-834.

Ren, Y., Kraut , R., & Kiesler, S. (2007). Applying Common Identity and Bond Theory to Design of Online Communities. Organization Studies, 28(3), 377-408.

Richards, L. (2015). Handling qualitative data: A practical guide (3 ed.). London: Sage.

Shaw, S. M., & Henderson, K. (2005). Gender analysis and leisure constraints: An uneasy alliance. In E. L. Jackson, & E. L. Jackson (Ed.), Constraints to leisure (pp. 23-34). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Sinicki, A. (2017). How Candy Crush Is Controlling Your Brain – The Psychology Behind Addictive Computer Games. Retrieved August 15, 2017, from Health Guidance: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/17179/1/How-Candy-Crush-Is-Controlling-Your-Brain--The-Psychology-Behind-Addictive-Computer-Games.html

Sintas, J. L., de Francisco, L. R., & Álvarez, E. (2015). The Nature of Leisure Revisited: An Interpretation of Digital Leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(1), 79-101.

Soroush, M., Hancock, M., & Bonns, V. K. (2014). Self-control in casual games: The relationship between Candy Crush Saga™ players' in-app purchases and self-control. In Games Media Entertainment (GEM), 2014 IEEE (pp. 1-6). IEEE. IEEE (s. 1-6). Games Media Entertainment (GEM).

Spracklen, K. (2011). Constructing Leisure. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Spracklen, K. (2015). Digital Leisure, The Internet and Popular Culture: Communities and Identities in A Digital Age. . Basingstoke: Hampshire : Palgrave Macmillan.

Statista. (2016a, April). Leading Mobile Game Genres Played by Frequent Gamers in the United States in 2016. Retrieved September 7, 2017, from Statista-The Statistics Portal: https://www.statista.com/statistics/232332/types-of-mobile-games-played-most-often-in-the-us/

Statista. (2016b, March). Statista - The Statistics Portal. Retrieved September 6, 2017, from Number of Mobile Phone Gamers in the United States from 2011 to 2020 (in millions): https://www.statista.com/statistics/234635/number-of-mobile-gamers-forecast/

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Stenseng, F., Rise, J., & Kraft, P. (2011). The Dark Side of Leisure: Obsessive Passion and Its Covariates and Outcomes. Leisure Studies, 30(1), 49-62.

Su, Y. S., Chiang, W. L., Lee, C. T., & Chang, H. C. (2016). The Effect of Flow Experience on Player Loyalty in Mobile Game Application. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 240-248.

Takao, M., Takahashi, S., & Kitamura, M. (2009). Addictive personality and problematic mobile phone use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 5, 501-507.

Torkildsen, G. (2005). Leisure and recreation management (5 ed.). New York: Routledge.

Abbott-Chapman, J., & Robertson, M. (2015). Youth leisure, places, spaces and identity. In S. Gammon, & S. Elkington, Landscapes of leisure (pp. 123-134). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Beard, J. G., & Ragheb, M. G. (1980). Measuring Leisure Satisfaction. . 12(1): 20-33. Journal of Leisure Research, 12(1), 20-33.

Beranuy, M., Oberst, U., Carbonell, X., & Chamarro, A. (2009). Problematic Internet and mobile phone use and clinical symptoms in college students: The role of emotional intelligence. , 25(5), 1182-1187. Computers in Human Behavior, 1182-1187.

Beyens, I. F. (2016). “I don’t want to miss a thing”: Adolescents’ fear of missing out and its relationship to adolescents’ social needs, Facebook use, and Facebook related stress. Computers in Human Behavior, 64, 1-8.

Bose, I., & Yang, X. (2011). Enter the Dragon: Khillwar’s Foray into the Mobile Gaming Market of China. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 29, 551-564.

Carr, N. (2017). Re-thinking the Relation between Leisure and Freedom. Annals of Leisure Research,, 20(2), 137-151.

Carroll, B., & Alexandris, K. (1997). Perception of Constraints and Strength of Motivation: Their Relationship to Recreational Sport Participation in Greece. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(3), 279-299.

Chen, C., & Leung, L. (2016). Are You Addicted to Candy Crush Saga? An Exploratory Study Linking Psychological Factors to Mobile Social Game Addiction. Telematics and Informatics, 33(4), 1155-1166.

Chess, S. (2018). A time for play: Interstitial time, Invest/Express games, and feminine leisure style. New Media & Society, 20(1), 105-121.

Cheung, C., Lee, M., & Jin, X. (2011). Customer Engagement in an Online Social Platform: A Conceptual Model and Scale Development. Thirty Second International Conference on Information Systems, (s. 1-8). Shangai.

Chick, G., Hsu , Y. C., Yeh , C. K., & Hsieh, C. M. (2015). Leisure Constraints, Leisure Satisfaction, Life Satisfaction, and Self-rated Health in Six Cities in Taiwan. Leisure Sciences, 37(3), 232-251.

Choi , Y., & Dattilo, J. (2017). Connections Between Media Technology and Leisure: Insights from Aristotle and Heidegger. Annals of Leisure Research, 20(2), 152-168.

Chubb, M., & Chubb, H. R. (1981). One-third of Our Time: an Introduction to Recreation Behavior and Resource. New York: Wiley. New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Cooper, H., Hedges , L. V., & Valentine, J. C. (2009). The Handbook of Research Synthesis and Meta-analysis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. C. (1987). Reconceptualizing Barriers to Family Leisure. Leisure Sciences, 9(2), 119-127.

Crawford, D. W., Jackson, E. L., & Godbey, G. C. (1991). A Hierarchical Model of Leisure Constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309-320.

Cushman, ,. G., Veal, A. J., & Zuzanek, J. (2005). Leisure participation and timeuse surveys: an overview. In ,. G. Cushman, A. J. Veal, & J. Zuzanek, Free Time and Leisure Participation: International Perspectives (pp. 1-16). Wallingford: CABI Publishing.

Dockterman, E. (2013, 11 15). Candy Crush Saga: The Science Behind Our Addiction. Retrieved August 10, 2017, from TIME: http://business.time.com/2013/11/15/candy-crush-saga-the-science-behind-our-addiction/

Eklund, L. (2016). Who are the casual gamers? In T. Leaver, & M. Wilson, Social, Casual, and Mobile Games: The Changing Gaming Landscape (pp. 15-30). New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Engl, S., & Nacke, L. E. (2013). Contextual Influences on Mobile Player Experience – a Game User Experience Model. Entertainment Computing, 4(1), 83-91.

Fields, T. (2014). Mobile ve social game design: Monetization methods and mechanics. New York: A K Peters/CRC Press.

Franken, D. A., & Raaij, W. V. (1981). Satisfaction with Leisure Time Activities. Journal of Leisure Reaserch, 13(4), 337-352.

Ha, I., Yoon, Y., & Choi, M. (2007). Determinants of Adoption of Mobile Games under Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Environment. Information ve Management, 44(3), 276-286.

Henderson, K. A., & Shaw, S. M. (2006). Leisure and gender: Challenges and opportunities for feminist research. C. Rojek, S. Shaw, & A. Veal içinde, A handbook of leisure studies (s. 216-230). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hetz, P. R., Dawson, C. L., & Cullen, T. A. (2015). Social media use and fear of missing out (FOMO) while studying abroad. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 47(4), 259-272.

Hochschild, A., & Machung, A. (2012). The second shift: Working families and the revolution at home. London: Penguin.

Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (2009). Flow Online: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 1, 23-24.

Huizinga, J. (2014). Homo Ludens Ils 86 (Vol. 3). Oxon: Routledge.

Jackson, E. L. (1988). Leisure Constraints: a Survey of Past Research. Leisure Science, 10(3), 203-215.

Jackson, E. L., Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1993). Negotiation of Leisure Constraints. Leisure Sciences, 15(1), 1-11.

Jeong, E. J., & Kim, D. J. (2009). Definitions, key characteristics, and generations of mobile games. In D. Taniar (Ed.), Mobile computing: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications (pp. 289-295). Hershey: IGI Global.

Kang, S. J., Ha, J. P., & Hambrick, M. E. (2015). A Mixed-method Approach to Exploring the Motives of Sport-related Mobile Applications among College Students. Journal of Sport Management, 29(3), 272-290.

Kim, H. M. (2013). Mobile Media Technology and Popular Mobile Games in Contemporary Society. International Journal of Mobile Marketing, 8(2), 42-54.

Koivisto, E. M. (2007). Mobile Games 2010. Nokia Research Center , 1-21.

Kozlenkova, I. V., Palmatier, R. W., Fang, E., & Xiao, B. (2017). Online Relationship Formation. Journal of Marketing, 81(3), 21-40.

Kulabaş, Ş. (2013, 12 30). Candy Crush'a Neden Para Ödüyoruz? Retrieved August 8, 2017, from Harvard Business Review Türkiye: https://hbrturkiye.com/blog/candy-crush-a-neden-para-oduyoruz

Layland, E. K., Stone, G. A., Mueller, J. T., & Hodge, C. J. (2015). Injustice in Mobile Leisure: A Conceptual Exploration of Pokémon Go. Leisure Sciences, 40(4), 288-306.

Lee, S., & Quan, C. (2013). Factors Affecting Chinese Ubiquitous Game Service Usage Intention. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 11(2), 194-212.

Lehtonen, M. J., & Harviainen, J. T. (2016). Mobile Games and Player Communities: Designing for and with Clans. Design Management Review, 27(3), 20-26.

Lune, H., & Berg, B. L. (2017). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (9 ed.). Edinburgh: Pearson.

Machi, L. A., & McEvoy, B. T. (2016). The literature review: Six steps to success (3 ed.). California: Corwin Press.

Mannell, R. C. (2013). Leisure in the laboratory and other strange notions: psychological research on the subjective nature of leisure. In S. Elkington, & J. Gammon (Eds.), Contemporary Perspectives in Leisure (pp. 25-39). Routledge. (pp. 25-39). New York: Routledge.

Mannell, R., & Kleiber, D. A. (1997). A Social Psychology of Leisure. Alberta: Venture Publishing.

Manovich, L. (2001). The Language of New Media. Massachusetts: MIT Press.

McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. . Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Meredith, J. (1993). Theory building through conceptual methods. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 13(5), 3-11.

Merikivi, J., Tuunainen , V., & Nguyen, D. (2017). What Makes Continued Mobile Gaming Enjoyable? Computers in Human Behavior, 68, 411-421.

Mintel. (2015, August 21). Gamers gone mobile: Half of Americans play video games on mobile devices. Retrieved July 2, 2018, from Mintel: http://www.mintel.com/press-centre/technology-press-centre/gamers-gone-mobile-half-of-americans-play-video-games-on-mobile-devices

Morahan-Martin, J., & Schumacher, P. (2003). Loneliness and Social Uses of the Internet. Computers in Human Behavior. 19(6), 659-671.

Newzoo. (2017). Global Games Market Report 2017. Amsterdam; San Francisco: Newzoo. Retrieved from https://newzoo.com/insights/articles/the-global-games-market-will-reach-108-9-billion-in-2017-with-mobile-taking-42

Nielsen. (2011). The Mobile Media Report: State of The Media Q3 2011. Nielsen. Retrieved from http://cn.nielsen.com/documents/Nielsen-Social-Media-Report_FINAL_090911pdf

Nysveen, H., Per Pedersen , E., & Thorbjørnsen, H. (2005). Intentions to Use Mobile Services: Antecedents and Cross-Service Comparisons. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 33(3), 330-346.

Oftedal, A., Kang, H. K., & Schneider, I. (2015). Perceptions and responses to conflict: Comparing men and women in recreational settings. Leisure Sciences, 37(1), 39-67.

Parker, S. (1979). The Sociology of Leisure. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd.

Pereira, A. P., & Long, J. (2015). The Social Dynamics of Space Constructions and Leisure Lifestyles. In Landscapes of Leisure (pp. 41-54). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Pieper, J. (1998). Leisure, the Basis of Culture. (G. Malsbary, Çev.) Indiana, South Bend.

Pink, S., Hjorth, L., Horst, H., & Nettheim, J. (2017). Digital Work and Play: Mobile Technologies and New Ways of Feeling at Home. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 21(1), 26-38.

Polo, D. R., Mendo, L. S., León Del Barco, B. B., & Felipe Castaño, E. (2017). Mobile Abuse in University Students and profiles of victimization and aggression. Adicciones, 29(4), 245-255.

Przybylski, A. K., Murayama, K., DeHaan, C. R., & Gladwell, V. (2013). Motivational, emotional, and behavioral correlates of fear of missing out. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1841-1848.

Raymore, L. A., Godbey, G. C., & Crawford, D. W. (1994). Self-esteem, gender, and socioeconomic status: Their relation to perceptions of constraint on leisure among adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 26(2), 99-118.

Redhead, S. (2016). Afterword: A New Digital Leisure Studies for Theoretical Times. Leisure Studies, 35(6), 827-834.

Ren, Y., Kraut , R., & Kiesler, S. (2007). Applying Common Identity and Bond Theory to Design of Online Communities. Organization Studies, 28(3), 377-408.

Richards, L. (2015). Handling qualitative data: A practical guide (3 ed.). London: Sage.

Shaw, S. M., & Henderson, K. (2005). Gender analysis and leisure constraints: An uneasy alliance. In E. L. Jackson, & E. L. Jackson (Ed.), Constraints to leisure (pp. 23-34). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Sinicki, A. (2017). How Candy Crush Is Controlling Your Brain – The Psychology Behind Addictive Computer Games. Retrieved August 15, 2017, from Health Guidance: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/17179/1/How-Candy-Crush-Is-Controlling-Your-Brain--The-Psychology-Behind-Addictive-Computer-Games.html

Sintas, J. L., de Francisco, L. R., & Álvarez, E. (2015). The Nature of Leisure Revisited: An Interpretation of Digital Leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(1), 79-101.

Soroush, M., Hancock, M., & Bonns, V. K. (2014). Self-control in casual games: The relationship between Candy Crush Saga™ players' in-app purchases and self-control. In Games Media Entertainment (GEM), 2014 IEEE (pp. 1-6). IEEE. IEEE (s. 1-6). Games Media Entertainment (GEM).

Spracklen, K. (2011). Constructing Leisure. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Spracklen, K. (2015). Digital Leisure, The Internet and Popular Culture: Communities and Identities in A Digital Age. . Basingstoke: Hampshire : Palgrave Macmillan.

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